The fresh Areas of the new Skeleton Usually Measured (PoSAC) are similar to Watson’s “diagnostic zones”

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The animal bones and you will teeth was in fact tested, however, just particular areas of some of the skeleton was in fact submitted in more detail and you may mentioned

As to why, southern area of your own Ebro drainage program, the replacement/intake process occurred far after than just somewhere else inside West European countries, stays good “fuss.” Our very own theory is that climatic and you can demographic things are involved , –. North of your Pyrenees, the newest perception out-of a honestly cold iceberg knowledge (Heinrich Feel cuatro), upset, from inside the main and you may east European countries, because of the effects of the brand new Phlegraean Fields caldera burst, need caused a society freeze. At the same time, towards the south, and especially therefore across the Atlantic facade, pine and you can pine woodlands extended notably throughout the fresh “Ebro Frontier,” hence, in the world, is actually one of basically more gentle environment (GIS8; Greenland Interstadial 8); in contrast in what took place when you look at the Iberia at the time of the brand new Tardiglacial/Very early Holocene changeover, inhabitants fall off and a break-up out of communication systems most likely taken place considering the extension of such tree-shielded landscapes. The web based results might have been you to definitely where, getting progressive human organizations paying down the brand new foothills of one’s Cantabro-Pyrenean mountains, southward extension (or networking) may have be none you’ll nor common. Then, given that inhabitants numbers retrieved while the much time GIS8 period stumbled on a conclusion, that have southwestern Iberian surroundings checking to own large herbivore herds and you may its candidates as a result of the come back to stadial conditions, correspondence and way over the earlier border should have ensued, having inevitable outcomes to your Neandertal refugia off westernmost Eurasia.

Material and techniques

This new standards used whenever deciding whether or not to number a specific fragment from bone otherwise enamel, as well as how he could be measured, is actually demonstrated somewhere else , . Like, the fresh medial half of new articulation of your distal tibia try measured, however, nothing of your own following areas of an effective tibia could well be counted: the fresh new lateral 1 / 2 of the brand new distal articulation, diaphysis, and you will proximal end. These types of “counted areas of this new bones” through the mandibular cheek teeth, and you will articular comes to an end/epiphyses and you may metaphyses of girdle, limb and legs bones. These are the units accustomed assess the latest wavelengths of different parts of the brand new bones and you will proportions of more youthful (epiphysis unfused) rather than mature (epiphysis bonded) animals. When other parts of your own bones like antlers, horn cores or maxillary white teeth is the just facts to the presence out of a varieties, this type of non countable specimens was registered in addition to their exposure denoted by the good “+” indication, but not included in the complete counts from kinds discover. The reason why for buying that these parts are as follows: a) he or she is relatively easy to determine in order to kinds; b) specific, including the distal metacarpal in a few types of artiodactyls, when in sufficient number, provide factual statements about the latest sex proportion; c) of a lot become another type of middle off ossification, or epiphysis, and this combines towards remaining portion of the bone during the a specific years and thus, inside enough number, give a ratio out of juveniles in order to people; d) of numerous offer helpful specifications; and age) they show up off extremely areas of the latest bones (lead, girdles, limbs and you will base) in addition to their relative wealth indicates you are able to choices for different areas of the human body such as non-meat results in place of meats results parts otherwise fore house rather than hind home.

At the ICEN lab, samples were first cleaned by hand removal of foreign material. For bone samples, gelatin was extracted using the Longin method , and the 14 C measured by means of the liquid scintillation technique described elsewhere . Stable isotope enrichment values (? 13 C) were determined for the CO2 gas produced in the initial stage of benzene synthesis. Radiocarbon ages were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of Stuiver and Polach . The gelatin extracted from ICEN-490 and ICEN-732 was pure, with no residue after combustion, and normal ? 13 C values were obtained, whereas the gelatin of ICEN-491 was impure, the yield very low, and the ? 13 C could not be measured due to an accident in the mass spectrometer (Table 3). For these reasons, ICEN-490 and ICEN-732 are reliable measurements, but ICEN-491 is not.


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